A new study says that for every charter that opens, a Catholic school closes.

The author, Abraham Lackman, who worked for the New York state senate when it passed the first charter law in 1998, said that no one anticipated that charters–which are publicly-funded and tuition-free–would drain students from Catholic schools, which are not tuition-free.

He says the charters are not as good as Catholic schools and cost the state additional millions of dollars.

The head of the foundation that supports charters in Albany said that parents make the choice. “We’re more concerned with where they’re going, not with where they’re coming from,” he said.